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How many roots are there in Arabic?

Actually, I don’t think that anybody has ever counted the number of Arabic roots. Mathematically: 21,952 roots. Practically, you get 6,332 roots.

LAST UPDATED: 1 month ago

Clearly, it is merely impossible to count all Arabic roots by human means as we do not have full information of the Arabic corpus. Theoretically, we can try to calculate the number of Arabic roots – but also this is quite challenging. Let's try to get some answers and estimations.

Now, let's go straight to our question.

What is the total number of roots in Arabic?

Number of roots in Hans Wehr

There are many Arabic dictionaries. Hans Wehr's Arabisches Wörter­buch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart (named after a German scholar, pub­lished in 1952) is the most complete dictionary of Standard Ar­abic ever published in the West. It con­tains 2967 roots (جِذْر) with 3 letters and 362 with 4 letters.

Number of roots in Lisan al-Arab

The most famous dictionary of Classical Arabic is Lisān al-‘Arab (لِسان الْعَرَب), com­piled by Ibn Manzūr (ابْن مَنْظُور) in the early 14th cen­tury (711 AH). It contains around 80,000 entries and in total (3 + 4 letters + foreign words) 9273 roots.

Mathematically possible number of roots

Since the consists of 28 letters ( phonemes) there are 21,952 theoretical combinations (=283) of roots with three radicals. However, certain combinations are impossible (with few exceptions):

  • There is no Arabic root which consists of three identical consonants.
  • There are no Arabic roots with identical consonants in the first and second position.
  • There are almost no Arabic roots with identical consonants in the first and third position. An exception would be قلق (@Erik – thanks for telling me; see comment).
  • However, there are roots whose second and third letter are identical, for example, to pass (م-ر-ر).

Considering all possible restrictions, the theoretical number of all possible combinations of roots (morphemes) with three letters is 6332.

What are the most common root letters?

In , the most common root letter is ر‎ (722 times). The ظ is the least common: only 42 times (1.4 %). The ن is the most common first radical (235 times).

A joke about Arabic roots

The goes as follows.

Every root denotes four things:

  1. its basic concept
  2. the opposite
  3. something related to a camel or horse
  4. and something so obscene you need to look it up for yourself.

Okay, this is only a joke, but it may work quite well with the root جمل.

Question: Do you know which letters you can theoretically add to an Arabic root? Hint: There aren't many.

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Picture credit: Image by Erzsébet Apostol from Pixabay

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1 year ago

When trying to come up with the maximum number of roots what about the 4 letter roots? That max number is very large indeed. Why do you only do the calculation for three letter roots and then tout that as a maximum limit?

Erik Sundquist
Erik Sundquist
3 years ago

I am surprised you say there are no roots with the same letter in first and third position. Off the top of my head, I come up with q-l-q قلق and d-w-d دود.

5 years ago

Taking into account the glottal stop (hamza), should it not be said that there are 29 letters in the Arabic alphabet? At the same, alif being only a vowel cannot be part of a radical, so this first comment is uneffective…
Second comment: a theoretical value of 28^3 assumes that we accept combination R1=R2=R3, which I understand is forbidden. I was wondering whether other combinations are forbidden too.

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