Nunation (تنوين) in Arabic is used when there is no definite article ال. But that is only half of the truth. The idea is much deeper.
Nunation (تنوين) can tell you something about the character and personality of a word. It is a deep idea developed by the first Arab grammarians.
Before the Aleph or on top of it - the position of the Tanween fatha has long been debated. Egyptians and Syrians have different approaches
A final Aleph (ألف) in Arabic to express the accusative case (منصوب) can be tricky. Where do you put it on a final Hamza (همزة)? Here are the rules.